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Carla Barbieri


Biltmore Hall (Robertson Wing) 3028D

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Ph.D., Parks, Recreation & Tourism Resources, Michigan State University, Lansing, Michigan

M.S. Conservation of Forestry Resources, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima Peru

Bachelors & Professional Degree Law & Political Sciences, Universidad de Lima, Lima, Peru

Current Research Interests

  • Agritourism (recreation and education in working farms)
  • Sustainable Tourism
  • Rural Wellbeing and Local Food Systems


2022 Outstanding Global Engagement Award, NC State Office of Global Engagement

2019 Fulbright Scholar, Spain All Disciplines

2019 Outstanding Program Team Award, North Carolina Association of Cooperative Extension

2018 National Diversity Team Award, National Association of Community Development Extension Professionals

2017 Emerging Scholar. International Academy for the Study of Tourism.

2015 “Spark Award” for most stimulating paper published in 2014.  Tourism Tribune for the manuscript:  “Tourism and recreation research along the natural rural-urban gradient:  Global trends and implications for China”.

2013 Best Illustrated Paper Award.  Travel and Tourism Research Association – 44th Annual International Conference.

2012 Top-10 Most-Cited Articles 2009-2011. Elsevier – Journal of Rural Studies for the manuscript: “Why is diversification an attractive farm adjustment strategy? Insights from Texas”.

2012 Outstanding Graduate Faculty Award. University of Missouri Graduate School and the Graduate School Association, University of Missouri.

2012 Global Scholar. Council of International Initiatives, University of Missouri.



Schmidt, C., Chase, L., Barbieri, C., Rilla, E., Singh Knights, D., Thilmany, D., Tomas, S., Dickes, L., Cornelisse, S., Lamie, D., Callahan, R., George, H., & Leff, P. (2022). Linking research and practice: The role of Extension on agritourism development in the United States [Special Issue: Extension Education and Teaching]. Applied Economics and Teaching Resources, 4(3), 33-48.

Reilly, C., Stevenson, K., Warner, W., Park, T., Knollenberg, W., Lawson, D., Brune, S., & Barbieri, C. (2022). Agricultural and Environmental Education: A call for meaningful collaboration. Environmental Education Research, 28(9), 1410-1422. DOI: 10.1080/13504622.2022.2040431.

Savage, A., Barbieri, C., & Jakes, S. (2022). Cultivating success: Personal, family and societal attributes affecting women in agritourism [Special Issue: Gender and tourism sustainability]. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 30(7), 1699-1719. DOI: 10.1080/09669582.2020.1838528.

Brune, S., Knollenberg, W., Stevenson, K. T., & Barbieri, C. (2022). Investigating predictors of public and private sphere sustainable behaviors in the context of agritourism. Sustainability, 1516980. DOI: 10.3390/su14020663.

Brune, S., Knollenberg, W., Stevenson, K., Barbieri, C., & Schroeder-Moreno, M. (2021). The influence of agritourism experiences on consumer behavior towards local food. Journal of Travel Research, 60(6), 1318-1332; DOI: 10.1177/0047287520938.

Knollenberg, W., Gil Arroyo, C., Barbieri, C., & Boys, K. (2021). Craft beverage tourism development: The contributions of social capital. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 20, 100599; DOI: 10.1016/j.jdmm.2021.100599.

Gil Arroyo, C., Knollenberg, W., & Barbieri, C. (2021). Inputs and outputs of craft-beverage tourism: The Destination Resource Acceleration Framework. Annals of Tourism Research, 86, 103102; DOI: 10.1016/j.annals.2020.103102.

Li, J. & Barbieri, C. (2020). Demystifying members’ social capital and networks within an agritourism association: A Social Network Analysis. Tourism and Hospitality, 1(1), 41-58; DOI: 10.3390/tourhosp1010004.

Brune, S., Knollenberg, W., Stevenson, K., & Barbieri, C. (2020). U-pick farms: Harvesting more than pumpkins? Journal of Parks and Recreation Administration, 38(4), 135-144; DOI:  10.18666/JPRA-2020-10038.

Brune, S., Stevenson, K. T., Knollenberg, W., & Barbieri, C. (2020). Development and validation of a children’s agricultural literacy instrument for local food. Journal of Agricultural Education, 61(3), 233-260; DOI: 10.5032/jae.2020.0300233.

Halim, M. F, Barbieri, C., Morais, D. B., Jakes, S., & Seekamp, E. (2020). Beyond economic earnings: The holistic meaning of success for women in agritourism [Special Issue: Gender and Rural Development: Sustainable Livelihoods in a Neoliberal Context]. Sustainability, 12(12), 4907; DOI: 10.3390/su12124907.

Carrillo, B., Barbieri, C., Knollenberg, W., & Edwards, M. B. (2020). Tour leading in South America: Job inputs and outcomes. Journal of Travel Research, 59(7), 1316–1330; DOI: 10.1177/0047287519880018.

Carrillo, B., Barbieri, C., Knollenberg, W., & Edwards, M. B. (2020). The stress from my tour leading job: Differences between genders. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Management, 44, 211-214; DOI: 10.1016/j.jhtm.2020.06.013.

Barbieri, C., Sotomayor, S., & Gil Arroyo, C. (2020). Sustainable tourism in indigenous communities: The case of the Peruvian Andes. Tourism Planning & Development, 17(2), 207-224; DOI: 10.1080/21568316.2019.1597760.

Xu, S., Barbieri, C., & Seekamp, E. (2020). Social capital along wine trails: Spilling the wine to residents? Sustainability, 12(4), 1592; DOI: 10.3390/su12041592.

Barbieri, C. (2020). Agritourism research: A perspective article. Tourism Review – Jubilee Special Edition, 75(1), 149-152; DOI: 10.1108/TR-05-2019-0152.

Li, J. & Barbieri, C. (2019). Incentives to join associations: The case of agritourism. Tourism Insights, 9(1), art 5; DOI: /10.9707/2328-0824.1084.

Barbieri, C. & Streifeneder, T. (2019). Agritourism advances around the globe: A commentary from the editors [Special Issue: The 1st World Congress on Agritourism]. Open Agriculture, 4(1), 712-714.

Barbieri, C., Stevenson, K. T., & Knollenberg, W. (2019). Broadening the utilitarian epistemology of agritourism research through children and families. Current Issues in Tourism, 22(19), 2333-2336.

Sotomayor, S., Gil Arroyo, C., & Barbieri, C. (2019). Tradition and modernity side-by-side: Experiential tourism among Quechua communities [Special Issue: Ethnic Minorities and Global Tourism]. Journal of Tourism & Cultural Change, 17(4), 377-393.

Gil Arroyo, C., Barbieri, C., Sotomayor, S., & Knollenberg, W. (2019). Cultivating women’s empowerment through agritourism: Evidence from Andean communities [Special Issue: Agritourism in Mountain Regions]. Sustainability, 11(11), 3058. DOI: 10.3390/su11113058.

Barbieri, C., Sotomayor, S., & Aguilar F. X. (2019). Perceived benefits of agricultural lands offering agritourism. Tourism Planning & Development16(1), 43-60.

Li, J., Canziani, B., & Barbieri, C. (2018). Emotional labor in hospitality: Positive affective displays in service encounters. Tourism & Hospitality Research, 18(2) 242–253.

Santeramo, F., & Barbieri, C. (2017). On the demand for agritourism: A cursory review of methodologies and practice. Tourism Planning & Development, 14(1), 139–148.

Barbieri, C., Xu, S., Gil Arroyo, C., & Rozier Rich, S. (2016). Agritourism, farm visit, or…? A branding assessment for recreation on farms. Journal of Travel Research, 55(8), 1094-1108.

LaPan, C., Morais, D., Barbieri, C., & Wallace, T. (2016). Power, altruism and communitarian tourism: A comparative study. PASOS – Revista de Turismo y Patrimonio Cultural, 14(4), 889-906.

LaPan, C., Morais, D., Wallace, J., & Barbieri, C. (2016). Women’s self-determination in cooperative tourism micro-enterprises. Tourism Review International,20(1), 41-55.

Li, J., Whitlow, M., Meszaros, K., Leung, Y-F., & Barbieri, C. (2016). A preliminary evaluation of World Heritage tourism promotion: Comparing websites from Australia, China and Mexico. Tourism Planning & Development, 13(3), 370-376.

Kline, C., Barbieri, C., & LaPan, C. (2016). The influence of agritourism on niche meats loyalty and purchasing. Journal of Travel Research, 55(5), 643-658.

Xu, S., Barbieri, C., Leung, Y-F., Anderson, D., & Rich, S. R. (2016). Residents’ perceptions of wine tourism development. Tourism Management, 55, 276-286.

Xu, S., Leung, Y-F., & Barbieri, C. (2016). Characterizing themed touring routes – A geospatial and tourism evaluation of wine trails. Tourism Planning & Development, 13(2), 168-184.

Sotomayor, S., & Barbieri, C. (2016). An exploratory examination of serious surfers: Implications for the surf tourism industry. International Journal of Tourism Research, 18(1), 62-73.

Barbieri, C., Henderson, K., & Santos, C. (2014). Exploring memorable surfing trips. Annals of Tourism Research, 48, 277-280.

LaPan, C. & Barbieri, C. (2014). The role of agritourism in heritage preservation. Current Issues in Tourism, 17(8), 666-673.

Leung, Y-F., Barbieri, C., & Floyd, M.F. (2014). Tourism and recreation research along the natural-rural-urban gradient: Global trends and implications for China. Tourism Tribune, 29(6), 3-6.

Deason, G., Seekamp, E., & Barbieri, C. (2014). Perceived impacts of climate change, coastal development and policy on oyster harvesting in the southeastern United States. Marine Policy, 50, 142-150.

Sotomayor, S., Barbieri, C., Wilhelm Stanis, S., Aguilar, F.X., & Smith, J. (2014). Motivations for recreating on farmlands, private forests, and State or National Parks. Environmental Management, 54(1), 138-150.

Valdivia, C., & Barbieri, C. (2014). Agritourism as a sustainable adaptation strategy to climate change in the Andean Altiplano. Tourism Management Perspectives, 11, 18-25.

Gao, J., Barbieri, C., & Valdivia, C. (2014). A socio-demographic examination of the perceived benefits of agroforestry. Agroforestry Systems, 8(2), 301-309.

Gao, J., Barbieri, C., & Valdivia, C. (2014). Agricultural landscape preferences: Implications for agritourism development. Journal of Travel Research, 53(3), 366-379.

Wilhelm Stanis, S., & Barbieri, C. (2013). Niche Tourism Attributes Scale: A case of storm-chasing. Current Issues in Tourism, 16(5), 495-500.

Gil Arroyo, C., Barbieri, C., & Rozier Rich, S. (2013). Defining agritourism: A comparative study of stakeholders’ perceptions in Missouri and North Carolina. Tourism Management, 37, 39-47.

Barbieri, C., & Sotomayor, S. (2013). Surf travel behavior and destination preferences: An application of the serious leisure inventory and measure. Tourism Management, 35, 111-121.

Barbieri, C. (2013). Assessing the sustainability of agritourism in the US: A comparison between agritourism and other farm entrepreneurial ventures. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 21(2), 252-270.

Holderieath, J., Valdivia, C., Godsey, L., & Barbieri, C. (2012). The potential for carbon offset trading to provide added incentive to adopt silvopasture and alley cropping in Missouri. Agroforestry Systems, 86(3), 345-353.

Valdivia, C., Barbieri, C. & Gold, M. (2012; Invited). Between forestry and farming: Policy and environmental implications of the barriers to agroforestry adoption. Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics, 60(2), 155-175.

Xu, S., Barbieri, C., Wilhelm Stanis, S., & Market, P. (2012). Sensation seeking behind recreational storm chasers. International Journal of Tourism Research, 14(3), 269-284.

Barbieri, C., Santos, C., & Katsube, Y. (2012). Volunteer tourism in Rwanda: Insights from participant observation. Tourism Management, 33(3), 509-516.

Tew, C., & Barbieri, C. (2012). The perceived benefits of agritourism: The provider’s perspective. Tourism Management, 33(1), 215-224.

Barbieri, C., & Aguilar F. (2011). The Ius In Re model to analyze users’ rights within complex property regimes: Two ex post applications in South America. Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal, 24(3), 292-302.

Barbieri, C. (2010). An Importance-Performance Analysis of the motivations behind agritourism and other farm enterprise developments in Canada. Rural Tourism and Recreation in Canada – a Special Issue of the Journal of Rural and Community Development, 5(1-2), 1-20.

Barbieri, C., & Valdivia, C. (2010). Recreation and agroforestry: Examining new dimensions of multifunctionality in family farms. Journal of Rural Studies, 26(4), 465-473.

Barbieri, C., & Mahoney, E. (2010). Cultural tourism behavior and preferences among the live-performing arts audience: An application of the Univorous-Omnivorous framework. International Journal of Tourism Research, 12(5), 481-496.

Barbieri, C., & Valdivia, C. (2010; Invited). Recreational multifunctionality and its implications for agroforestry diffusion. Agroforestry Systems, 79(1), 5-18.

Aguilar, F.X., Cernusca, M., Gold, M., & Barbieri, C. (2010). Frequency of consumption, familiarity and preferences for chestnuts in Missouri. Agroforestry Systems, 79(1), 19-29.

Barbieri, C., & Mahoney, E. (2009). Why is diversification an attractive farm adjustment strategy? Insights from Texas farmers and ranchers. Journal of Rural Studies, 25(1), 58-66.

Barbieri, C., & Mshenga, P. (2008). The role of firm and owner characteristics on the performance of agritourism farms. Sociologia Ruralis, 48(2), 166-183.

Barbieri, C., Mahoney, E., & Butler, L. (2008). Understanding the nature and extent of farm and ranch diversification in North America. Rural Sociology, 73(2), 205-229.

Barbieri, C., Mahoney, E., & Palmer, R. (2008). RV and camping shows: A motivation-based market segmentation. Event Management, 12(2), 53-66.


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Date: 04/01/19 - 3/31/23
Amount: $1,100,000.00
Funding Agencies: Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC)

This project will develop a comprehensive model program for developing an industry cluster around local foods focused on entrepreneurship, business development, job creation and workforce development, training, providing career ladder opportunities, and growing community leadership for lasting change. This work will be focused in the 7 county “foodshed” region of the Southwestern Commission (Region A Council of Governments), which includes North Carolina’s most distressed counties. and the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians (EBCI).This comprehensive model will build on work that has already occurred in the 7 county region and through grant funding to the Southwestern Commission from the NC Rural Center, through a nascent regional local food advisory council that included participants representing food banks, funders, public health and health organizations, NC Commerce, agriculture organizations (including USDA, NCDA, and Cooperative Extension), academic institutions (Western Carolina and the three community colleges in the regions), the faith based community, the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, and the Southwestern Commission, and through many of the other partners we are engaging who work in the food systems sector. The work also builds on the expertise and experience of over 24 years of statewide work of the Center for Environmental Farming Systems (CEFS), a partnership of NC State University, NC A&T State University, and the NC Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. CEFS is excited to bring lessons learned and best practices from a comprehensive list of relevant projects ( to develop this industry cluster with community partners, and together boost the economy of western NC. This project overlaps with four of the five strategic investment goals of the five-year ARC strategic plan including providing economic opportunities, workforce development, leveraging the region’s natural assets, and building capacity and skills for long lasting change. This project also overlaps with the goal of providing critical infrastructure needed to build a sustainable regional local food economy. The region recognized the opportunity for economic development based in local food systems, as has the Appalachian Regional Commission, which hosted a forum in Asheville NC in 2012 titled “Growing Appalachian Food Economy”, and funded various food systems and entrepreneurship projects in North Carolina over the last five years, including five in food systems since 2013 for a total investment of $310,000, and four in entrepreneurship training since 2013 for a total investment of $430,000. This project aligns fully with three of the four investment priorities of the POWER initiative, including: building a competitive workforce, fostering entrepreneurial activities, and developing industry clusters. What is unique about this effort is the opportunity to develop an industry cluster through implementing many disparate food systems projects in one target area (vs scattered statewide) as a comprehensive model that can be transferable to other coal-impacted areas in the nation. The opportunity to do a ‘deep-dive’ in this region with ready and willing partners and all of our collective assets makes for a compelling opportunity to build on existing momentum and significantly improve the region’s economy.

Date: 09/01/19 - 8/31/22
Amount: $119,784.00
Funding Agencies: US Dept. of Commerce (DOC)

This study proposes to develop a profile of potential shellfish mariculture tourists so coastal communities can capitalize on the growing interest in food tourism. This will be accomplished through a combination of survey, asset mapping, and comparison techniques. First, a survey will be conducted of food tourists who intend to visit Atlantic coastal states to identify potential shellfish mariculture tourists’ experience preferences and the barriers to their participation. Then community-based asset mapping will be conducted with NC community stakeholders, including tourism and economic development officials, shellfish mariculture producers, residents, and other coastal industry members to identify existing shellfish mariculture tourism assets. These findings will be compared to the current shellfish mariculture tourism product supply in NC coastal communities to identify how demand for shellfish mariculture tourism can be met. Finally, a suite of prototype NC shellfish mariculture tourism outreach materials will be developed which will be tested for their ability to connect with potential shellfish mariculture tourists and stimulate demand for shellfish mariculture products.

Date: 09/01/17 - 8/31/22
Amount: $499,536.00
Funding Agencies: US Dept. of Agriculture - National Institute of Food and Agriculture (USDA NIFA)

This integrated (research, education, outreach) project will measure the educational and market impacts of agritourism among middle school students under three scenarios: unstructured (family recreational visits), semi-structured (school-based farm visits), and structured (farm visits in support of agricultural curricula) conditions. Specifically, it will investigate the impact of farm visits on children’s’ agricultural literacy and how that knowledge is transferred to their parents as purchasing intention of local agricultural products. Identifying the most high-impact forms of agritourism in terms of educational and market value will help to forge stronger connections between citizens and their local food producers, which in turn will contribute to the economic, social, and environmental sustainability of local agricultural systems (AFRI’S overall goal) and strengthen rural communities’ economies (AFRI’s Priority 6). Through partnerships with agritourism farmers and elementary teachers across North Carolina this project will use experimental and quasi-experimental approaches to test changes in agricultural literacy (children) and locally-based purchasing behaviors (parents) via pre and post-tests surveys. Project results will help to: Determine which forms of agritourism are most suitable to increase agricultural literacy and stimulate the purchase of local agricultural products (Research); develop a measurement instrument for agricultural literacy (Research); train agritourism farmers so they can modify their programming offerings (e.g., tour content, farm signage) to increase agricultural literacy and locally-based purchasing behaviors (Extension); and enhance agricultural curricula content to strengthen students’ connection to local agricultural systems (Education).

Date: 04/15/19 - 7/30/20
Amount: $25,979.00
Funding Agencies: North Carolina Youth Camp Association

Organized camping is an important contribution to the outdoor economy across the state of North Carolina. The North Carolina Youth Camp Association has requested a study of the impacts of this industry in the state of North Carolina, including three geographic regions, and for counties that contain multiple camps. This study will utilize survey data collected from camp directors, camp staff, and camp families to provide analysis of the economic impact of organized camping at the state, regional, and county level as well as an understanding of the industry’s social and environmental impacts.

Date: 04/01/15 - 3/31/17
Amount: $129,712.00
Funding Agencies: US Dept. of Agriculture - National Institute of Food and Agriculture (USDA NIFA)

The planning for this grant involved nine states with advisory groups within each state comprised of farmers, extension, researchers, and government agencies. These same representatives have committed to planning and hosting a regional conference in July of 2016. The conference will consist of a two-day workshop at the Center for Environmental Farming Systems in Goldsboro, NC. Workshops will feature a one-day workshop to discuss successes and failures, with multiple formats for exchanging ideas amongst all participants and a half day field day to look at innovative demonstration projects that might be useful for participants to take back to their states as educational tools. A solicitation for best learning tools will be issued in the summer of 2015. Any tools involving field demonstrations will be planted and maintained by CEFS staff ahead of the conference.

Date: 03/01/15 - 10/31/15
Amount: $22,900.00
Funding Agencies: NC Department of Transportation

The mission of NC Tourism Extension “is to improve the quality of tourism across rural NC by helping individuals and communities develop healthy,prosperous and enduring tourism enterprises that will boost economic and community development efforts.” We believe that Bycicle Tourism may help foster economic development and improved community wellbeing in the Central Park region; therefore, we are pleased to respond to your request for proposals for the execution of a marketing study for this form of tourism in the region. Our office and the proposed project team have an extensive record of research and community engagement in rural North Carolina. We lead statewise projects like People-First Tourism, and the NC Birding Trail, and we have helped NC counties, regions and organizations with marketing planning and research (e.g., agritourism study with VisitNCfarms). This previous work, and our affiliation with the NC Cooperative Extension Service, provides us access to key community leaders in all eight counties in the Central Park NC region. Moreover, we have already explained this study and obtained the support of key contacts in cycling and bicycle tourism organizations like IMBA, TORC, and Cycle to Farm. Our work is evidence-based and grounded on mixed methods participatory action research with stakeholder groups. We propose to collect data from a diverse set of regional stakeholders (e.g., community groups, extension and tourism division staff, small and micro entrepreneurs, road cycling and mt-biking enthusiasts and shops, to name afew. We propose to develop a three-phase study: On phase 1 of the study, we will use individual and group interviews to collect qualitative input; on phase 2, we will use that insight to develop an online and intercept survey to current and potential bicycle tourists; and on phase 3 we will share summary findings to key informants and stakeholders groups to validate the findings and improve stakeholder engagement. We propose to disseminate the findings of this market research study using a combination of outreach printed (e.g., short factsheets with infographics) and digital (e.g., Youtube videos) materials to extend the impact of our study results across a varied audience. We also propose to develop a geo-visualization visitor-origin map using open-source GIS technology.

Date: 07/01/13 - 6/30/14
Amount: $4,000.00
Funding Agencies: NCSU Faculty Research & Professional Development Fund

Agriculture produces a wide variety of valuable ecosystem services in addition to the traditional commodity outputs of food and fiber. Examples of these ecosystem services include biodiversity preservation, socially desirable aesthetics, as well as social and economic viability for rural areas. A central issue faced by federal and state governments, as well as agricultural producers, is how to assess the value of non-commodity ecosystem services generated from agricultural landscapes. For social scientists, this a particularly difficult issue to address given the limited availability of methodological tools through which non-market goods can be accurately estimated. The proposed research offers two novel and exploratory methodologies?immersive virtual environments (IVEs) and online marketplaces?to expand upon the existing literature surrounding the valuation of agricultural landscapes? non-commodity outputs.

Date: 01/01/13 - 12/31/13
Amount: $3,977.00
Funding Agencies: NCSU Faculty Research & Professional Development Fund

Anecdotal evidence suggests that artisanal oysterers have an important role in North Carolina's coastal heritage and local tourism. From the heritage perspective, these actors -through roadside and peer-to-peer sales- help to maintain the "Shucking" tradition, in which family gatherings revolve around oyster feasts. Additionally, oysterers are capturing tourism revenues through the sale of their product to seafood shacks and raw bars, which has fueled oyster-based tourism activities, such as the NC Oyster Festival. However, overharvesting, urban development, and climate change can threaten the sustainability of artisanal oysterers and, thus, the Shucking heritage and tourism development in coastal North Carolina. To date, research related to the perspectives of this subculture has been limited. This research will employ grounded theory methodology, using Brunswick County as a case study, to explore this subculture's perceptions of (a) the influences of artisanal and industrial harvesting practices on oyster beds and ecosystem health; (b) their roles in heritage preservation and tourism development, (c) the risks associated with urban development and climate change to their livelihood, and (d) the opportunities for their artisanal activity. Study results will provide a foundational understanding of the role of artisanal oysterers in coastal heritage preservation and culinary tourism. Additionally, this study will provide a preliminary assessment of the perceived risks and opportunities of this subculture, which will serve to seed future research that will expand (a) the scale (e.g., economic and socio-cultural benefits) to other stakeholder groups and international coastal destinations and (b) the context to adaptation strategies (e.g., urban development and climate change urban development and climate change) that may protect coastal heritage and promote culinary tourism development.

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